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I'm glad to connect with you here. This is my official online diary where I scribble my thoughts and experiences as an Architect. Subscribe to this blog if you wish to be notified of every new post I make. It also qualifies you to get a free author's signing of my e-book: 48-Laws-Of-Architectural-Consulting!

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Just3dit.com.ng is an innovative platform where Architects and Builders are allowed to order a very speedy rendering of their on-going projects after signing up with their basic information. The idea of such a platform is to challenge the time factor attributed with production of Architectural three dimensional views to its barest possible - 24 hours. 

One can initiate such order from a personalized dashboard by uploading floorplans of the work in any format available. The accepted file types include .dwg, (preferred) .rvt, .skp, .jpg .png .pln After uploading the floorplan the customer is prompted to make an advance payment after receiving a quote. On receipt of the payment, the model is generated within 12 hours and submitted to the customer for his review and approval before rendering which is the final step. The excellent shot 3D views are generally ready in less than 24 hours of receipt of payment.


PROPOSED TITLE OF THESIS                                          An Evaluation Of Building Height Effects On Thermal Comfort in High-rise Office Buildings in the Tropical Environment

Nigeria as a developing economy situated in the tropical climate zone is faced with a number of economic and environmental challenges when it comes to the development of her housing sector. High-rise buildings provide a borrowed but welcome solution to some of these challenges but however must be adapted to suit our own climate and weather conditions. The problem this study is concerned with solving is that of thermal discomfort experienced in high-rise office buildings in the hot humid tropical environment mostly due to arbitrary transfer of western Architectural styles. This study aims to evaluate the possible influence of increase in building height on indoor thermal comfort in high-rise office buildings in the study area with a view to understand the behaviour of high-rise buildings in our climate and thus provide guidelines for the future design of such buildings in the tropical area. The research gap this study intends to fill is easily observed in the plethora of literature from research works addressing related issues like thermal comfort in low-rise office and residential buildings, building height effects on outdoor thermal comfort of a city, but none has actually addressed the possible effects of increase in building height on indoor thermal comfort in high-rise office buildings within the tropical environment. The objectives to aid the achievement of the aim above include: Survey of existing high-rise office buildings in the study area and their constructed heights, empirical assessment of indoor thermal comfort in the sample high-rise buildings at different floor levels during working hours, qualitative assessment of indoor thermal comfort in the sample high rise buildings at different floor levels during working hours, use of statistical analysis tools to compare results from the empirical and qualitative assessments and statistical analysis of experimental results to establish significant relationship(s) between building height and indoor thermal comfort (if any).


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e-book review
by Author

The book 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting is an all-time classic collection of industry codes and ethics made for the sound and meticulous Architect who is eager to make an undying mark in his profession.

This book is a sequel to the main title; Learning to Be an Architect (published 2014). Both titles have the welfare of the aspiring Architect as the underlying theme.

Much controversy however have surrounded the release of this second part, 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting owing to it's large volume and frantically auto-suggestive mode of instruction to the reader. You will find it an interesting read, while you'ld love to make reference to it every now and then.

Ever wondered why you lost a potential client right after the first meeting? Do you think it was chance or Is there something you didn't get right? These and more are answered in this unique, book rendered with several real-life examples


Client: CBN staff multi-purpose Co-operative Society.

Project Synopsis
The project is a state-of-the-art, prime real estate, to be situated in the Emene Residential Layout of Enugu State, Nigeria. It is sited on a piece of land measuring, 14 Hectares of land to be beautifully transformed to a safe, conducive residential haven.

Sept 21, 2017
Geometrix Consultants have been commissioned to be the technical project consultants producing and compiling all relevant Construction drawings and supervising construction works under Architect Uche J. Uche. Funding Strategies and Logitics are being worked out presently.


Any inquiries regarding sales and purchase should be directed to:
For more information on Architectural design or other Technical details, kindly contact the technical consultants here.  Contractors who are interested in undertaking construction works here are advised to write the consultants directly.

If you are an Architect and you desire to improve your professional practice with sure-fire techniques that have worked for me; you may like to consider the e-book: 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting.


Project Synopsis:
The project is a proposed commercial real-estate development to be situated in the Emene Residential Layout of Enugu state, approximately 1km from the New Enugu International Airport (Akanu-Ibiam domestic Airport). The client is UK based civil servant who intends it to become his family's retirement plan.

14th June 2017
P-E consultants have been commissioned to be the technical project consultants producing and compiling all relevant Construction drawings and supervising construction works under Architect Chukwujindu K.E

7th Oct. 2017
Stages 1 and 2 of Architectural services have been fully delivered. This includes production of conceptual sketches, checking with Quantity Surveyor for estimates, meetings with client and his represenative(s) to obtain approval on conceptual sketches, cost estimates and finally, production of coordinated detail drawings and  Architectural and Engineering specification drawings.





Additional Services 
Client requires a proposal document to be prepared for him that will enable him apply for a loan facility from the bank of Infrastructure. This has been produced and submitted at the bank. A template of it can be made available on request.

Any inquiries regarding sales and purchase should be directed to:

For more information on Architectural design or other Technical details, kindly contact the technical consultants here. If you are an Architect and you desire to improve your professional practice with sure-fire techniques that have worked for me; you may like to consider the e-book: 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting.


The Nigerian institute of Architects N.I.A professional practice examination P.P.E held in two diets annually has just been concluded for the year 2017. No other exams organised by the institute will be held in the year 2017. In the wake of the growing impasse between the veteran examination conducting body and its national cousin; the Architect's Registration Council of Nigeria ARCON,  mixed feelings engulfed almost every examinee this year. The disagreement which has been described by many as everything including 'embarrassing' is rumored to be hinged on major administrative, tribalist and financial related prejudices. 

The Nigerian Institute of Architects, N.I.A set up in April 1960 has been the body responsible for pre-qualification of candidates and conduction of professional practice competence examination in the country, while the Architects registration council of Nigeria had hitherto relied on her for advice on successfully qualified candidates to be furnished with a practice license and a seal. This meant that once one scaled through the notoriously revered N.I.A exams, he/she was expressly admitted by ARCON and is deemed qualified to practice the profession of Architecture within Nigeria.
While this bi-laterral qualification requirement/proceedure had been questioned by many due to its rigorous nature, it had been accepted to be the 'norm' for over twenty (20) years.

Sadly, this amiable,


I am an Architect and I use a HP pavillion G6-2304tx laptop with a dedicated AMD Radeon graphics card asides the basic Intel graphics card. The reason I requested a laptop with a dedicated graphics card was to enable me use Lumion (app) in rendering my Revit-Architecture models. I bought this PC back in 2013 when I had just rounded off my M.Arch degree from SRM University, Chennai and it was quite pricey at the time. Four(4) years down the line, the laptop, is still working perfectly, and has helped me land and deliver a lot of wonderful projects. But something happened. One day, one of the staff, accidentally pours water into the keyboard. We quickly rushed to a service centre where the Engineers opened the laptop up and tried to sun-dry. Four (4) straight hours of intense sunshine, was allowed before it was put back together, only it developed more problems.

First the keypad typed selectively, some keys wont work in upper case while others didnt work at all. But this was not a big deal, I just bought and replaced the HP keypad, and it was back in order. The major problem resulted when, I tried to work on a project on lumion as usual. I discovered serious graphic inconsistencies and when I checked I realised the 'configure switchable graphics'kosi_emmanuel_chukwujindu

option which usually shows up when I right-click anywhere on my desktop (as shown in the image) was missing.

I found a way to


Originally Posted By 
Stephanie Nneoma Okoyekosi-emmanuel-chukwujindu

When its time for an old or defunct building to go down, many think of demolition as the first option. There is however an alternative method that has gained recognition for its green characteristics. It is called Building De-construction.

Demolition is the Traditional method of simply destroying a building or structure, reducing it down to a pile of rubble and waste which is collected and removed from the site. This is a hazardous process because it fills the nearby air with harmful dust, vapors and other compounds that are harmful to human beings. With this method, 'everything' goes to 'waste'.
Deconstruction on the other hand advocates for a more careful process of dis-assembly of buildings to recover the maximum amount of re-useable and or recycleable materials in a safe, environmentally responsible, and cost-effective manner. The materials thus recovered can be reused on the same site for a new construction, sold or donated to another site.

ARCHITECT: 5 Reasons Why You Should Learn A 3D Application

If you are an Architect and you desire to improve your professional practice with sure-fire techniques that have worked for me; you may like to consider the e-book: 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting. Architectural Visualization is simply the art of producing graphical presentation-drawings that assist us in understanding the intentions of the Architect for a particular project. It ranges from two(2) dimensional plan drawings to three(3) dimensional perspective presentations as shown above. 

Now, Whether you are a student or a practicing professional, you will find need to produce one of these at some point, either for academic purpose or for the use in convincing a client about a particular delivery option. In order to do this, some basic knowledge of one or more CAD software /application package is pertinent. Yes, of course you could always hire an Architect to produce this for you (if you do not already posses the skill set necessary to deliver it) each time the need arises. 

However, if you are young and still capable of doing your own drawings, it is wiser to settle for a simple drafting tool that will enable you market your ideas faster and more profitably to your client(s). There are plenty of reasons why you should know a 3D drafting package. 

Consider these: 
1. It puts the Magic in your Presentation (Convincing Power)

They say a picture is worth a thousand words. Presentations that feature one or more three(3) dimensional elements seem to captivate clients more than those that mostly contain text and too much technical details. No matter how functional your space planning is, If the client does not see enough visual content in the form of pictures, slides, videos, etc you may still struggle at convincing him. But try splashing some pictures here or there in-between the slides and watch him fall in love with your Architecture.  

2.  It gives you a Better Shot At Conveying Your Ideas To Your Team Members

Sometimes you have a great idea, a really awesome one, but you just can't find a way to relay this to a client or your principal. You end up trying to explain more than you need to. If only you knew a way to depict exactly what you intended for the building to look like, maybe you wouldn't have to rely on someone else who may produce something short of it. 

3.  It is very handy for Mop-Up Presentations with tight Deadlines (Time Saving)
SOme CAD applications can produce the three dimensional view of your proposed structure once you complete the floor plans accurately. Imagine how time efficient this feature can be when you are on a very tight deadline. Although, Rendering times may differ for different packages according to the degree of finishing required, with the right PC configurations and a little training you can still deliver your projects in good time.

4. You Can Make Some Extra Money
Who says you cant make some extra cash rendering projects for your team members and others. Everyday, everywhere, somebody needs a 3D visualization Consultant to produce either still images or video animated walkthroughs for a project or another. You can be the one who gets that call and delivers as required. You will be amazed at how much money this will translate to at the end of the month, every month, if you take it seriously.

5. You will Become a Resource Person
Who do you go to when you need help rendering a project? When you have been the 'go-to' guy for all things Archi-Viz for a while in your company, school, team or neighborhood, and you have consistently delivered on all assignments, then you will become the sage. Everyone will come to respect your authority and skill, soon you will find yourself more important than you thought, because you have actually succeeded in carving a niche for yourself.

You are invited to attend an Autodesk seminar holding in town this weekend. It will be an opportunity for young professionals in the construction industry to learn more about the various applications that are helping Architects deliver their projects faster and better. Sign Up to attend for Free using the Form to your Right. If you would prefer a private home/office training, Feel free to contact me.

Are you an Architect? What 3D software are you using to make your work easier? Do you think Nigerian Architects Should Develop an indigenous App for Architectural Visualization?

How To Prepare For Nigerian Institute Of Architects- Professional Practice Examination

Preparing, entering for and passing the Nigerian Institute of Architects (N.I.A) Professional Practice examination P.P.E is the dream of every young Architect in Nigeria. If you have completed your Bacherlor's and master's degrees  from an accredited Nigerian university or a recognized foreign university, and you have worked actively under a registered Architect in Nigeria who is already registered with the N.I.A, for a minimum of two(2) calendar years, then you may apply for the Professional Practice Examination. It is organised twice every year, in March and in September. It is the only examination that qualifies you to become a chartered Architect in Nigeria. It is dreaded by many for a number of obvious reasons. 

The process(es) required to be followed by an aspiring registrant have been called everything including 'rigorous' 

Some of the Most Important Requirements for Entry include :

  1. A completed logbook shewing professional practice experience duly signed by the Supervising Architect.
  2. A Project Report of 2,000 words. Projects are chosen for candidates after the assessment of their submitted logbooks. The submission of an acceptable logbook, curriculum vitae of Supervising Architect(s)  and a Report on a designated Project is a pre-condition for admission to the NIA-PPE.

Read More About Becoming a Registered Member of the Nigerian Institute Of Architects and understand the various levels of membership available. 
Or you can also sign up instantly for the Educative preparatory course CGRNIA - PREP by the Academy For Supportive Technical & Business Internships A.S.T.B.I  Admissions are on now.

What is your experience in applying for the NIA-P.P.E so far?
If you are an Architect and you desire to improve your professional practice with sure-fire techniques that have worked for me; you may like to consider the e-book: 48 Laws of Architectural Consulting.


If you are looking for how to create stunning Architectural animations, walkthroughs and complete working drawings and specifications that help you to put the WAWW!! on your client's face, then you are not alone in your search. Thousands of Architects, Engineers, students and ordinary researchers have been redirected to this page right after performing a simple google search.

Architectural presentation has simply moved on from the era of hand-drawn sketches to an age dominated with the increasing demand for computer generated(aided) design and drafting (hereafter referred to as C.A.A.D). Some Architects attribute this to the perceived superiority of the print quality (presentations) versus the hand made. Others say it simply saves time and improves their productivity, while some think it is simply a matter of how opportuned the Architect or Engineer is in learning the relevant C.A.A.D application packages.

Country Home Project


Country-home Amaechi Uwani - Four Bedroom Bungalow I.K Nnaji (Architectural Consultancy)

Featuring a British style pent house, we won the client's heart over. It is a four bedroom bungalow intended as the client's country home in Amaechi Uwani of Enugu-South Local Government Area (Enugu State). Par-Exc'ellen'ce Consultants and Builders Ltd.


Architect Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

Architect Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

Sitting on approximately 12 Acres of land, this beautiful master-plan will be an investment solution to indigenes of Asaba, Delta State, living abroad who want to invest back home. It features two major delivery options:
1. Plot of approximately 600sq.m   - Regular plot
2. Plot of approximately 800sq.m - Superior plot
3. Plot of approximately 1,000sq.m - King size plot



The aim of the project is to bring a coalition of several services in one accessible location for students and staff. The desire is to develop a well planned and organised cafeteria that will also double up as a meeting space for student interactions.

Objectives to achieving this goal include:
·        Proper siting of the restaurant to take advantage of Student interactive dispositions.
·        Technical Design and Supervision of the construction and furnishing
·  Integration of guidelines by USDA and NAFDAC in ensuring healthy feeding environment for students and staff. USDA is a set of rules and guidelines that guides food delivery procedure .
·        Employment of well trained and qualified managerial and admin staff

·        Integration of a sustainable financial management / repayment scheme.


Posted by 
Project Architect

Arc Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu
This post is dedicated to God, my beautiful girl, Chinonso,  and to all Architects who did their very best in the year 2016 and landed those juicy projects. Here, I have listed all the projects I directly (or indirectly) worked on in the year 2016. The list is not Chronological. 

For each project, I have put up a picture that tells the story as well as brief comments on them. I also endeavoured to mention the client and location including the status of the project, who worked on it with me and what exactly I did while on it. The duration of the projects have been left out as some are yet underway.
Feel free to leave your comments under this post. Details of the projects are always available for discussion/review anytime! Thank you.

1.0 De-World University Admin Block (Architectural Consultancy)
A private University located at Awgu local government area of Enugu State. Owned by a retired priest. Massive construction is underway. Under supervision of Arc. Eskay.
Arc. Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

1.1 De-world university faculty of management sciences (Architectural Consultancy)
As built measurement was taken after which complete working drawings were produced. construction is underway. The medical Center and Cafeteria are also included in the developing projects.
Arc. Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

2.0 Open Havens Estate Akpuoga-Nike, Enugu State (Architectural Consultancy & Supervision)
The client Emach Global Synergies, is desirous to develop a gated community style residential layout and thus commissioned us to develop the comprehensive master plan featuring four building prototypes and infrastructure design. Cheers to the Architects at Cadright! who worked with us on the project. A link to the animation video will soon be updated here.
Arc Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu


Posted By 
Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu
Project Architect

The project is a five(5) bedroom duplex. Its site is the private residence of an extended family hosting an existing six bedroom bungalow which was taken down to erect the new duplex and a smaller bungalow.

The rubble from the deconstruction process was reused in leveling of the site which has a gentle slope to the rear. The wood recovered from the roof was reused for some form-work during construction. The old bungalow was enveloped by the new duplex footprint which saved time and allowed for removal of only conflicting walls.others were levelled and used as fill in the new foundation.

Its internal features include a 4m high headroom main lounge in the ground-floor which flows into a 5m x 5m wide dining hall. The kitchen is complete with store and a door that leads the residents to the rear side of the house where they can interact with the existing bungalow, an ante - room with a visitor's toilet. It also has a 5m x 3m wide family lounge on the first floor which shares a curtain wall with the main lounge on the groundfloor. The master bedroom and the


As a project Architect, Knowing your construction equipments by name, is unavoidable. This post  is dedicated to highlighting the common construction equipments and explaining their uses.


This post is a sequel to the earlier post: "Project Architect: resolving staff conflict in site"

Enugu south international building materials market
from left: Architect, Carpenter
As a construction project manager, issues with staff are going to abound. What matters in the end is still Results!

In my experience, workers over time tend to grow too friendly and thence become rebellious. They suddenly seem to have got a hunch that you have been manipulating them into doing 'your' Work while you get all the 'big' money. This feeling if not checked leads them into acting abnormally uncooperative and even ready to end the relationship.

As the Architect, and project  manager, you have the responsibility of keeping your site in control so that you can continue to produce results, Especially if you work for a senior Architect who has entrusted the site in your management.

Here are a few of my own  tips on managing crisis in the site:

1. Understand that; when all is said and done, violence or force benefits nobody. With this in mind, you are left with the effective tool : diplomacy. Use diplomacy to coerce your workers into doing whatever you want without realising they are all players in 'your' game.

2. Your boss expects results, results and more results, he hardly has time to attend to reports from you or your staff, he believes you should Handle whatever situation arises on site with minimum supervision. Dont prove him wrong! 

3. Preach and emphasize teamwork to your workers. They would think twice before starting up a fire next time, if they see you as a brother instead of a boss.

4. Remain aloof, but make sure you are the smartest guy in the site. No tricks can evade you unless you let it for a higher cause. Use occasional little favours like careless tips, relaxed timing or bonus pays, to buy the hearts of your workers in preparation for the day you will make huge demands from them. 


By Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu
Project Architect

ENSIBUM is short for the : Enugu-South international Building materials market. The first phase of its development is 95% complete. This zone is for sale of reinforcement bars. 

It features a small 3m x 2m office space with large 6m x 12m frontage/ per occupant for stacking the reinforcement bars for sale. A total of 200 single units have been completed so far, and is on sale to the general public at a flat rate of N2,500,000. 

As we know the developer is Mc.Donalds manufacturing and industries ltd. The technical consultancy service from scratch was rendered by GEOMETRIX consultants and Builders ltd. while the construction was done by MALDINI construction company ltd. our sister company. I have been the project manager here for over a year now.

This post highlights my personal reflections about the project as it gradually nears hand over. As a great man said: "in life, we never really lose, its either we win or we learn something". I can say I have picked up a thing or two while working on this project.

1. Never forget who you are directly answerable to. While assuming the perfect courtiers posture to everyother interests.

Never conive secretly or openly with your staff to loot the company. It will be blown out of proportion when they speak of it and you will be made to look like a thief..just like them. As much as you can, keep the books tidy.

3. Dont assume you know everything just because you have a college degree. Listen to others ideas but remain the decision maker.

4. No matter how lonely she is at home, never bring your spouse to the site. Let work be work and family be family.

5. Monthly paid or at least weekly paid staff, perform netter overall than daily paid staff. They also offer greatter degree of dependability.

6. Dont live inside your own box, ask around elsewhere for broader ideas, methods and rates before you decide on your own project.

7. Dress for the job. Wear suitable clothes for the work always..make sure there is clear distinction between the worker and you.

8. Never employ anyone who is too old or way above your physical and psychological control. Make sure your staff remains loyal to you and you alone. Do not invite them to sit with the m.d when you are having a meeting, else they get a false sense of belonging and grow rebelious. Discharge such rebellious ones at once else they plan a mutiny against you.

9. Diplomacy is the key to manipulation. Use it always to get your way, without force, plead when you have to, enforce when you need to, coerce people to do your work happily.

10. If the project does not provide a vehicle, buy one for yourself!

11. Be reacheable and ready always.

12. Dont forget to learn!


posted By : kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

Architect: and Skirting Moulders

There are many methods of producing decorative skirting used at the corners of columns, walls,Windows etc.  
There is the traditional plaster-of-Paris skirting made from white P.O.P cement. This is used mostly for suspended ceilings and waist level skirtings within the interior of buildings. This type has the advantage of being lightweight and mouldable into almost any shape or design. The challenge however with this type is that it is not very resistant to water and thus it is seen to depreciate in aesthetics when exposed to prolonged dripings especially when used in exterior locations.

There is however an alternative method; THE USE OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT moulded to shape and finished with white (or any color)  paint. Skirting made from portland cement are typically resistant to water and last longer than those made from P.O.P cement. It however tends to be limited in versatility of design, due to its heavier weight. it is usually used for window trims, wall edges and fence trims, and other exterior needs etc.

At the ENSIBUM market project, we decided to use skirting made from cement to add some mass to the already gigantic entrance gate. This post is dedicated to describe how we made these skirting in-situ and installed them.

STEP 1: MATERIALS REQUIRED; semi coarse sand, soft texture sand, water, cement, a custom mould. 

STEP 2: PREPARE THE BASE : start by making a mound of about 4ft. length and about 6" high  using the semi-coarse sand. this will serve as base for the skirting, as well as separates it from the ordinary earth after the cement has cured and hence makes it easy to lift and shift. Use two range devices to protect the boundary on both sides of the mound. Using concrete nails to support the ranges along the lenght, making sure the space between them is even all through.  This will provide for a perfect edged skirting in the end.

STEP 3: MIX THE CEMENT: The skirting is made completely of cement mixed with water and a little fine texture sand.( when necessary).  A bag of cement can be properly mixed with about 15 - 20lts. of clean water. it should be stirred properly in a bucket or bowl or any open container that will allow for ease of scooping while molding.

Pour the cement paste gradually onto the sand mound. Use the hand held, locally carved  mould to shape it into desired pattern (as shown here) and allow in same position for at least 12 hours before attempting to remove.
Remember to make nail size openings along the skirting to allow for nailing during installation.

By physical inspection, you can tell when the skirting is strong enough to be handled without breaking. You can then raise it neatly, and carry to point of fixing. The plumb device is used to mark straight positions along the wall. this is to ensure that the skirting is not slant at any point which will look bad to the viewer.
Nail the skirting onto the wall, siupported by wooden noggins and use cement to dress the edges neatly!




As an Architect, you will be required to prepare work estimates in form of job quotations for proposed projects. Your ability to predict or forecast real life site requirements from your drawing board will be tested.
Whether you fail or succeed has serious functional implications through the project timeline. Some contracts do not leave room for future amendments while some do. Whichever the case is, it is advisable to predict and provide for as much as possible afore time.


By kosi Emmanuel chukwujindu

Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu
Architect: How to make your own Range device
As Architects and project supervisors we often require perfectly level/flat surfaces for floors, walls, lintels e.t.c. To achieve this, the practice is to make use of a device called the plumb. It is a horizontal steel pipe with a liquid trapped in a clear glass such that when the pipe is placed on a level surface, the air space is exactly at the center. This will indicate to the Architect or supervisor that the given job is okay. 
The challenge however is that for large  construction projects that have a lot of edges/surfaces to be confirmed, it may be quite expensive to procure the plumb device in large numbers. Moreso if there is no guarantee that they will all be returned after use. It becomes very wasteful to provide one plumb for each worker. In such case, about 2-3 workers can be assigned a plumb device while an alternative instrument -the range, is shared among all.
The range is similar to the plumb in shape. It is also a steel pipe which is about 6ft. Long x 1" wide. But it does not have the liquid trapped in clear glass. It is usually made of heavier metal than the plumb. It is especially useful in verifying how level a surface is. It can be used in the vertical or horixontal positions. And it is far cheaper than the plumb. It can be easily found at building materials markets or stores, but it is cheaper to make your own. 
Visit your local welder or steel pipes vendor,and ask for the 2" x 1" x 24' hollow steel pipe. In Enugu state, This sells for about N900. 
Step 2: 
Ask him to cut same into three pieces each  of 6' lenght. (Nb: you may vary this according to how much length you require). 
Step 3:
Ask him to weld some scrap metal over the two open ends of each pipe to prevent sand and other debris from entering the pipes while in use at the site. 
Once this is done, congratulations you have your self made range device ready for site work!


posted by
Kosi Emmanuel Chukwujindu

Concrete fascia detail sketch by Arc Jude Uche; M.D /C.E.O Geometrix Consultants
Conventional Nigerian builders will construct a wooden/metal formwork to the shape of the desired fascia right about the roof edge/building wall, install the reinforcement bars and cast the whole volume with concrete. well this is the 'text-book' thing to do, right?

Unfortunately, The problem with this method is that it typically consumes much more materials (steel, concrete and woodwork) and when the building(s) is a large one or are numerous, it becomes simply impractical and time consuming.

Goodnews is; the Architects at Geometrix have over the years through experience under the leadership of the meticulous Arc. Jude Uche, developed an alternative method of constructing the concrete fascia. This method (as in sketch above) involves a pre-cast moulding of the fascia and a systematic fastening on exposed reinforcemnet bars sticking out from already existing roof beam using 6mm binding wires.

step 1: ROOF-BEAM:  the traditional roof beam which is done right around on top of the last course of block, is done, but the 4- reinforcement bars are not completely covered with concrete yet, the top two are exposed in order to receive the binding wire that will be used to fasten the pre-cast fascia.

step 2: PRODUCTION: moulders are vigrously moulding the concrete fascia on site using only cement and sand. (NB: this eliminates the need for reinforcement bars in the curved concrete fascia (CCF). they are allowed to cure and set, on the ground before cutting and lifting to avoid breakages. the final product is quite heavy. tiny openings are provided at intervals to allow for passing of binding wires.

step3: CUTTING TO SHAPE: once the concrete fascia has set (usually 36 hours after molding) it can then be cut into desired lengths according to the building corners. a typical piece would be 4' - 6' long. The cutting is done with a concrete sawing machine. the same type used to saw through block walls.

step4: INSTALLATION: After the cutting, two workers lift up piece by piece, insert the binding wires and with the help of in-situ scaffolding, climb and actually fasten the wires on the
two top exposed bars in the already made roof beam.

the straightening is done externally using a long plumb device and then held in place by wooden supports along the body of the wall. The binding wire that has been passed through openings on the pre cast concrete fascia is tied onto the top exposed bars tightly and is then covered with a second layer of concrete to hold it in place forever. 

The final step is to 'tack' the joints properly with same binding wires and short pieces of wood which help prevent the different piecs from shifting until the final casting is done. they will be removed once the concrete sets. the thin openings at these joints will be covered with neat mortar and painted.

i). reduced volume of concrete.
ii). elimination of reinforcement bars in the fascia.
iii). reduction in overall weight of the fascia.
iv). same result as in-situ cast, sometimes even better!
v). If production begins early enough, Its installation takes less time.
vi). reduced cost of production due to elimination of materials such as reinforcement bars and wooden form work.

i). shortage of trained staff, may delay work
ii). curing time may delay work where production is not started early enough.